A soft tissue injury is damage to muscles, ligaments and tendons and classified as either traumatic or overuse. Repetitive strain injury (RSI) is an overuse condition of the musculoskeletal and nervous system that is caused by repetitive tasks, forceful exertions, mechanical compression and sustained awkward positions causing pain and loss of function.
Upper and lower limb injuries
Upper and lower limb injuries are very common amongst individuals. 25% of approximately 6300 adults received a musculoskeletal type injury within a 12 months period – of which 83% were activity-related. Musculoskeletal injury of the upper and lower limb can be classfied as either acute (less than 4 weeks), sub acute (4–12 weeks) or chronic (more than 12 weeks).
Neck pain and whiplash
Neck pain or cervicalgia is a common musculoskeletal disorder affecting 66% of people at some point in their lives. Neck pain can be caused by various musculoskeletal reasons such as muscular tightness or nerve entrapment. Exercise therapy with joint mobilisations have been found to be beneficial in both acute and chronic mechanical neck disorders.
Rehabilitation post surgery
Orthopaedic surgery is the branch of surgery concerned with conditions involving the musculoskeletal system. Numerous procedures are performed by orthopaedic surgeons that include: knee arthroscopy and meniscectomy, joint replacement (arthroplasty) and spinal fusion. Post surgical protocols including physiotherapy significantly maximise recovery.
Lumbar Back pain
Low back pain is another common musculoskeletal disorder affecting 80% of people at some point in their lives. The majority of back pain stems from musculoskeletal problems. Over 99% of back pain instances fall within this category and is commonly due to muscle or soft tissue sprain or strain - particularly in instances where pain arises with physical loading of the back. Sciatica symptoms include pain (often in one or both legs) that may be caused by general compression or irritation of one of five spinal nerve roots.
Sports injuries can be classified as either traumatic or overuse injuries. The majority of sports injuries are traumatic that range from bruising, muscle strains, ligament sprains and fractures. The tissues immediate response is that of inflammation – which is characterised by pain, swelling, heat, redness and loss of function. Too much of an inflammatory response in the early stage can prolong the healing process and return to activity. Treatment is intended to minimise this inflammatory phase of an injury.
Nerve entrapment or compression neuropathy is caused by direct pressure on a single nerve that usually affects one particular part of the body. The direct pressure reduces flow within the vessels that supply the nerve with blood causing local ischaemia. Signs and symptoms depend upon the specific nerve involved and how severely the nerve is affected leading to scarring if prolonged. These symptoms are often associated with a mixture of neuropathic pain, tingling, numbness and muscle weakness.